On African Musicianship — or how I unlearned music

The djembe

Source: Djembemafia.com
From left to right: Base, Tone, Slap


Embodied Solfège



Rhythmic Holon

FOLI —there is no movement without rhythm


  1. Peñalosa, D. and Greenwood, P., 2009. The clave matrix: Afro-Cuban rhythm: Its principles and African origins. Bembe Books.
  2. Ladzekpo, C.K. (1995). Foundation Course in African Dance-Drumming; OCLC 44366373 a: “The Myth of Cross-Rhythm” b: “Main Beat Schemes” c: “Six Against Four Cross-Rhythm” d: “Three Against Four Cross-Rhythm”
  3. Ladzekpo, C.K., 1995. Foundation course in African dance drumming (web document). Available at httpzllcnmat. CNMAT. BerkeleyEDU/~ ladzekpo/Foundation. html.
  4. Nzewi, M., 1997. African music: theoretical content and creative continuum: the culture-exponent’s definitions. Inst. für Didaktik Populärer Musik.
  5. Blanc, S., 1997. African Percussion: The Djembe. Percudanse Association.
  6. Slater, J., Ashley, R., Tierney, A. and Kraus, N., 2018. Got rhythm? Better inhibitory control is linked with more consistent drumming and enhanced neural tracking of the musical beat in adult percussionists and nonpercussionists. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 30(1), pp.14–24.
  7. Steppin’ on the Blues by Jacqui Malone. University of Illinois Press. 1996. page 21.
  8. Anku, W., 1997. Principles of rhythm integration in African drumming. Black Music Research Journal, pp.211–238.
  9. Stupacher, J., Wood, G. and Witte, M., 2017. Neural entrainment to polyrhythms: a comparison of musicians and non-musicians. Frontiers in neuroscience, 11, p.208.
  10. Vuust, P., Wallentin, M., Mouridsen, K., Østergaard, L. and Roepstorff, A., 2011. Tapping polyrhythms in music activates language areas. Neuroscience Letters, 494(3), pp.211–216.



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